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Generally comedones appear as reddened bubbles that may end in a white protuberance or not, which is nothing but pus accumulated in a specific skin pore. Unlike the external pimples, which occur precisely with the classic ‘white tip’, in those under the pus remains embedded in an inner sac. In these cases the epidermis is not damaged and the inflammation is unable to find a vent, remains subcutaneous.
Thus, comedones under the skin can appear to the touch as imperfections, take the form of papules or small cysts, or eventually become blackheads. Often they are not visible externally but their existence is perceived only because the skin above them tends to redden and / or chafe. In other cases we perceive them, instead, because they can lead to itching at the beginning and at the end of the inflammation and to be particularly painful in the phase of acute inflammation.
Their size can vary: they can be very small and perceptible only to the touch, but also very large, hard or painful. Finally, when they are flared up, they do not necessarily disappear completely: they may remain, although shrunken and tendentially no longer troublesome. Blackheads (or pimples) are another type of comedones under the skin: they appear just like black spots on the skin, particularly affecting the nose, forehead, cheeks, back and ears. They are asymptomatic and when we empty one, usually the material is ejected from the shape of a small yellowish, black hair at the outer end.
Read an essential guide on how to get rid of comedones with simple home remedies in this article: besthomeremedies.com/how-to-get-rid-of-comedones.html.
The formation of pimples under the skin can be caused by a series of factors, sometimes concomitant. In particular:
1. Excessive production of sebum
Comedones are the symptom of one of the diseases that most affects the skin of man: acne. They are the result of the inflammation of a hair bulb, due to an excessive production of sebum by the underlying sebaceous gland. This sebum, which looks like an oily substance, is produced automatically by our skin for self-protection purposes, but when it fails to escape, it tends to stagnate in the area. Coming so in contact with various types of bacteria, it is easy to start an inflammatory process that gives rise to various manifestations: uncomfortable and unsightly pimples in some cases, persistent skin problems in others, to make acneic a real pathology which requires specific care for this.
2. Hormonal and genetic causes
In particular, acne is also caused by other factors, usually hormonal. High levels of testosterone in the blood, or however of androgens (both in men and women), stimulate the sebaceous glands to produce sebum and based on the subjective sensitivity of the same, each of us responds to the presence of these hormones so completely individually. In fact, during adolescence, the many changes at the hormonal level can stimulate and make the production of sebum vary causing the so-called juvenile or adolescent acne.
Reasons similar to those of young acne, are the basis of acne outbreaks affecting women when they face a pregnancy (especially acne rosacea characterized by fragility of the capillaries), in the days before the menstrual cycle or when, past the fertile age, they are about to enter menopause (late acne).
3. Rest of impurity
In the case of blackheads, however, it happens that the hair bulb remained ‘open’, is clogged with external agents that, acting as a cap, ensure that the part oxidizes and becomes dark in color. In these cases, even if we are faced with more unsightly pimples that tend to persist over time and to periodically reform, we are still at lower risk of inflammation.
The more or less evident imbalances, brought by allergies, cause a further possible factor in the formation of pimples under the skin. Unfortunately, the check you have on real allergies is quite limited, especially if it is the usual spring allergies.
What are the areas of the face and body most affected by subcutaneous comedones?
5. Liver problems
Since it is a ‘filter’ the organism, if the liver does not work at its best, the eliminated toxins can probably contribute to the formation of pimples and subcutaneous imperfections.
Although more rarely, rubbing can also be a cause of pimples formation, for example in newborns due to diaper allergies.
There are areas that seem to be the favorite targets of comedones under the skin: areas that we would rather they were totally devoid:
Comedones typical of adolescence tend to hit the so-called ‘T zone’ of the face, or the chin, the nose and the forehead. Going further with age, or abusing some drugs such as cortisone, in addition to the aforementioned area, the part under the chin, the lips, the sides of the mouth and the neck may also be affected by comedones. The back, the shoulders and the thorax are easily hit by comedones because in these areas there is a high concentration of voluminous sebaceous glands, able to create particularly prominent cysts or nodules, which are induced to proliferate also by the humidity created by clothes and sweat.
It may happen to find pimples under the skin even on the armpits, scalp, pubis and groin. These are all areas with a high concentration of hair and with a thick layer of dermis. The first factor leads to greater possibilities of inflammation of the hair bulbs and also to a greater propensity to spread inflammation and bacterial infections in the surrounding areas. The second factor makes the leakage of sebum even more difficult due to the longer and obstructed sebaceous duct. In these cases it is even easier for the sebaceous gland to fill like a balloon giving the idea of a real under-skin pattern, similar to a small cyst. In severe cases, buttocks, thighs, legs and arms may also be involved.
You have to manage comedones that are based on the actual severity with which they occur. Having a pimple from time to time is normal, we all passed and usually after a few days go away spontaneously without causing damage. However, when comedones are not only a skin defect, but become important problems for the health of our skin and our global well-being, then it is good to take action to understand the reasons behind the outburst and to take appropriate countermeasures.
When comedones have triggered strong inflammation and do not respond to other treatments, it is possible that the doctor acts systemically, through the use of cortisone, which helps to eliminate the largest inflammation in a short time, then act later by local. The same happens with antibiotics when there are infections. Much more often, specific products are used to cleanse the part affected by pimples and to treat injuries.
There are also natural remedies to combat pimples under the skin, find out which!
Tips to avoid the formation of comedones
Fortunately, many of us collide only with rare or sporadic cases of comedones under the skin or, in any case, with phenomena that can be managed independently. And in this case, how to behave? We can keep in mind the simple rules that, put in place daily, can give relief to our skin and contribute to the elimination of pimples also under the skin.
> Keep a correct and balanced diet: consume fruit, vegetables and water in the recommended quantities, allows to keep the skin hydrated from the inside. In case of particularly dry skin it is good to also help with specific moisturizing creams.
> Avoid oil-free skin care products, from tricks to detergents. Food intolerance: it is advisable to check if you have any food intolerances and carefully avoid the foods that cause them. In fact, the substances that our body does not tolerate at best, can also cause unpleasant cutaneous rashes. Managing stress: it is now known that stress can be the trigger for the formation of pimples. So, as far as possible, it would be good practice to try to limit stress, at least in everyday life.
> Hygiene and cleansing: It is important to wash your face at least 2 times a day, using specific products if necessary, which at the same time are effective but delicate to avoid getting the opposite effect to the desired one.
> Do not abuse alcohol and drugs: both these categories can cause imbalances in the body and it is therefore appropriate to limit their use to situations that make them really necessary. How to behave at the appearance of pimples under the skin: the various possible cases.
Do not squeeze it, do not scratch it, do not bite it with the needle, do not hurt it in any way. Even if the temptation to release the contained sebum is often strong, it is good that you resist because you risk making it inflamed even more and wake up the next day with some extra comedones or with an even bigger pimple. a red pimple under the skin: if the pimple is very red it means that it is very inflamed.
In these cases the skin is swollen, the area can hurt the pressure, sometimes only to touch or even without touching it; other times it can give a lot of itching. Try then, if possible, to put an antibiotic or cortisone-based ointment, which will cause it to blur, protecting the area with a piece of gauze that avoids contact with external agents or clothes that may induce other irritations. Remember not to abuse these substances as they can lead to further sensitization of the skin area.
If a white pimple appeared on your skin, as usual, do not mistreat it unnecessarily. If you are not in particularly delicate areas, you can try to put ointment based on ichthyol, maybe asking your pharmacist for advice. In this way, it is possible that in the space of ten days, it tends to shrink until it comes out. Often to be affected by annoying white pimples under the skin are delicate areas, such as the eyelids or the areas below the eyes. In these cases if the blemish brings you trouble or you just want to eliminate it because you consider it unsightly, consult a dermatologist who will suggest the most appropriate way to eliminate it surgically.
If you have a pimple under the breast: do not touch it at all. The breast is a particularly delicate area of the female body, rich in glands that may cause inflammation. Avoid uncomfortable, annoying bras with splints or cups that touch the area, especially if they cause pain. Keep the area clean and, at most, make a compress with warm water that can help dilate the affected pores.
If you have a pimple under the skin on your back and shoulders: wear light, fresh, cotton and breathable clothes. Avoid contact with tight clothing or buy pressure; clean and dry the area to avoid the increase of humidity. If the situation gets worse, try iodine supplements, benzoyl peroxide or products with resorcinol, salicylic acid or sulfur.
If it’s hot and you sweat a lot: always wipes the sweat and, as soon as you can, wash it away from the skin and change clothes, always preferring the transpiring ones. If it is summer and you are at sea, avoid exposing the area affected by the pimple in the hot sun and in any case avoid spending too much time sunbathing.
If you are in the pre-menstrual phase: unfortunately at this stage it is almost a routine for women to have pimples on the face, it seems that it suffers 78%! The only valid advice is not to touch them unnecessarily because there is the risk of causing other areas of the face to ignite. Moreover, this being a particular moment of the month, try to follow even more the main rules: eat healthy and moisturizing foods; drink a lot; always clean your face, perhaps using cosmetics without oils; make tea tree oil and apple cider vinegar the week before the cycle arrives, trying to eliminate bacteria and toxins.
If you find that in contact with some substances you are more likely to appear pimples: simply try to limit them. They can be foods, drinks, alcohol or drugs. In the case of nutrition, keep in mind that having proper nutrition is good for our whole body, even for the skin. In particular, take vitamin A and E. In the event that comedones occur during the intake of specific drugs, contact your doctor, read the package insert of the medicine that you ingest, try to understand if there really can be a correlation and if it is possible to limit the insurgency hassles. Hair removal and make-up: two simple but fundamental operations!
To those who will have shaved, to use depilatory creams or waxing and soon see pimples emerge under the skin? It is extremely common and is due to small inflammatory processes that affect the hair bulbs of that part of the epidermis. We can certainly try to limit the effects of activities such as depilations. It is good to disinfect and simultaneously moisturize the area that is stressed by external agents or traumas.
After using the razor it is suitable to apply aftershave or moisturizing and refreshing creams. It is finally possible, especially after the waxing, when the skin is extremely inflamed, irritated and reddened, to make compresses with water and boric acid, in order to disinfect the area and try to avoid the formation of subcutaneous cysts or that become inflamed with sebaceous glands.
Closed comedones (blackheads)
Blackheads, closed comedones, are imperfection of the skin that is manifested mainly on three localized areas of the face: nose, forehead, and chin. Their appearance is due to some wrong behaviors and habits in both facial cleansing and nutrition. They manifest when the skin becomes particularly oily, the pores dilate and the sebum obstructs the normal breathing of the skin, thus generating the black spot.
Not everyone knows this, but nutrition also plays an important role in the formation of blackheads. To prevent the appearance of blackheads it is good to follow a proper nutrition.: the diet must be rich in fruit and vegetables. Vitamins and mineral salts contained in fruits and vegetables, are an important ally of the skin, they are also rich in water. Even the right hydration, in fact, fights the formation of blackheads: drinking the famous 8 glasses of water a day helps the epithelial cells to remain healthy.
Natural and home remedies against comedones
It is easy to get advice from friends and acquaintances to treat pimples independently. In reality many techniques are useless and risk further damaging our skin. For example, some of the most recommended remedies for external pimples are totally ineffective when it comes to subcutaneous imperfections such as the application of toothpaste to make them dry or the lemon to disinfect them.
Salt is also one of the most discussed grandmother’s remedies. Many try to make compresses, usually at night, to wake up in the morning with skin even more reddened, inflamed, if not even excoriated! Here instead what can do us good and can help us in the treatment of pimples under the skin:
The creams aim to improve the well-being of the skin by absorbing beneficial substances. Often they cannot give immediate results but in the long run we will surely have a smoother, more compact and softer skin. Depending on the problem, the recommended creams can be very different and it is therefore advisable to have a thorough knowledge of the type of epidermis and its needs.
Scrub, although in these cases it is appropriate to use very delicate variants, allowing to eliminate dead and dry cells that can make bacteria proliferate. Very important is the phase of the scrub, during the facial cleansing, to be carried out 2 or 3 times a month, to empty the pores, thoroughly cleanse and finally hydrate.
Practical guide that illustrates how to make a natural and effective face scrub. Sunbathing, among other things, is good for drying the skin and therefore excess sebum.
To avoid the formation of stains and to protect the skin, it is always advisable to expose yourself always in the less hot hours, thus avoiding peak times carefully, and always use sunscreens with a high protection factor, possibly non-comedogenic.
It has antibacterial properties, helps to regulate the secretions of sebum, therefore to make the pores shrink. There are both aloe vera supplements that act from the inside, and detergents, gels and masks to be applied externally.
Oatmeal helps to reduce excess sebum, or that oily patina that those suffering from frequent, small pimples, can easily find on their face. It is recommended especially in cases of external acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties.
A do-it-yourself remedy for all skin types: purifying mask with oatmeal against pimples under the skin! Being effective, but very delicate, so as to be one of the main ingredients in children’s detergents, it can be used safely as main ingredient to prepare a fragrant purifying mask! (It is also good to fight blackheads)
- Oatmeal 150 gr
- Water q.b. (if possible, distilled)
- 2/3 drops of lavender essential oil
It is sufficient to mix all the ingredients together, until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. In the case in which you have a particularly impure skin, it is good to add also two drops of tea tree essential oil; or two of chamomile if you have particularly delicate skin. Keep in place for 10 to 20 minutes, rinse gently with cold water and apple vinegar to shrink pores and proceed with your daily moisturizing! As we have seen, comedones under the skin are a rather annoying manifestation, but it is possible to eradicate them or keep them under control to maintain a healthy, well-cleansed and hydrated skin.
Blackheads (also called open comedones) look like small pimples or rashes that appear on the skin because of the obstruction of the hair follicles. These skin lesions are called ‘blackheads’ because their surface is dark or black.
Open comedones are a form of acne that develops on the face, especially on the nose, the chin, ears, forehead. However, they can also appear on: the back, breast, legs, wool, the neck, arms and shoulders. Black dots on the back can be very big. Generally, blackheads are caused by overproduction of sebum that manifests itself at puberty.
Peak hormone production can cause high levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone that triggers hyperactivity of the sebaceous glands, causing clogging of the pores.
Skin hygiene and blackheads, a myth
Many people believe that if the skin is not thoroughly cleansed, blackheads may appear. More frequent cleanings do not make much difference on acne. They could, on the contrary, aggravate skin symptoms if unsuitable soaps are used. In some cases, black dots may appear due to excessive use of:
- Aggressive soaps
- Moisturizing creams
- Sun creams
- Makeup or foundation
- These products irritate the skin and cause redness and swelling
According to doctors, diet does not cause acne. Studies have sought to show that there is a link between certain dairy products and acne. However, no scientific evidence has been advanced.
However, according to the theory of the blood group diet, among the causes, there are:
- Milk and dairy products,
- Cereals containing gluten.
Stress does not directly affect the formation of blackheads. However, stress and anxiety can cause people to scratch blackheads and acne pimples, causing skin irritation.
Blackheads are easy to identify on the skin because of their dark color. Slightly embossed, they do not cause pain because they are not inflamed as are the pimples. Should we drill the black dots? Yes, this is the only way to remove blackheads immediately. In addition, when the pore fills again, it will be softer and easier to treat. However, do not squeeze all visible black spots. Some are too small and partially covered. This process could damage the surrounding skin. It is only necessary to start on the most open and dark pores skin. After piercing the black dot, clean the area with water.